Andreas Schedler earned his PhD from the University of Vienna. A resident of Mexico since 1997, he is professor of political science at the Center for Economic Teaching and Research (CIDE) in Mexico City. He has done comparative research on electoral authoritarianism, democratic transition, consolidation, and subversion, anti-political-establishment parties, political accountability, and organized criminal violence. In the field of methodology, he has worked on concept analysis and cross-national measurement. He is co-editor (with Larry Diamond and Marc F. Plattner) of The Self-Restraining State: Power and Accountability in New Democracies (1999) and editor of Electoral Authoritarianism: The Dynamics of Unfree Competition (2006). His most recent books are The Politics of Uncertainty: Sustaining and Subverting Electoral Authoritarianism(Oxford University Press, 2013) and In the Fog of War: Citizens and Organized Criminal Violence in Mexico (cide, 2015) (in Spanish).